I am a technical leader, senior software developer, adtech enthusiast and writer interested in the online industry. • Email: rafalrybnik@yahoo.com

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Why cashiers ask for your postal code when you pay using a credit card

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(Fig. by Author)

Storage-based methods (described in the previous part) are the best-known and the most-used methods for identifying and tracking people online.

Why not only storage-based

However, these methods sometimes do not affect. Users can easily turn off or clear up browser storages. Browsers also develop methods to restrict the possibility of tracking.

Device or browser fingerprinting is to solve those issues.

Why the cashier needs my postal code

Do you know why cashiers often ask for postal code, when you pay using a credit card?

It happens because retailers want to attribute what shopping baskets are bought by a particular consumer. The shop does not obtain all digits of your credit card number, but only a few last digits. …


Advice from Google’s chief economist

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Hal R. Varian, Google’s Chief Economist (pic. source)

Interesting data science project in a portfolio could not only validate your skills but also help find a job. Beginner data scientists often struggle to come up with ideas for their next project.

But there is a way to find ideas and to determine that they are worth time.

Dr Hal R. Varian is the Chief Economist at Google and also an emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Maybe some of you, who studied economics, recognize him as the author of economics textbooks.

In the mid-nineties, Varian described his method of making economic models in the popular essay. …


Working on Machine Learning models or big data processing means a lot of waiting.

While I work on scraping data from a website or train machine learning model, it happens that I am not sure that the script is still working.

It will be good to have an indicator that the script is executing, just like old Windows hourglass cursor.

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Windows hourglass cursor (source)

There is a handy package for this task called yaspin (Yet Another Terminal Spinner for Python).

Example of spinner (by author)

To install it, just use old good pip:

pip install yaspin

When the package has been installed, it’s usage is pretty straightforward.

Example from yaspin’s author

You can customize the animation. My favourite is the Moon:

Moon spinner (by author)

More examples of spinners and advanced usage:

Connect with Rafal — https://www.linkedin.com/in/rafalrybnik/?locale=en_US

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